What is Open Access?

Open Access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder (Peter Suber). OA is achieved through two primary channels: archiving (Green OA) or publishing (Gold OA). OA publishing shifts the costs of content creation and distribution away from subscribers. What this means is that OA published information is freely available to anyone worldwide with an internet connection – no subscription necessary.

Each October, Open Access Week offers a chance to advocate for more scholarly work to be made available OA. This year, the Furman University Libraries will celebrate Open Access Week through workshops and online awareness. This is a great chance to learn more about Open Access, make your own scholarship available through OA archiving in the new Furman University Scholar Exchange (FUSE), or considering publishing OA.

Open the Library. Open the World. Open Access.

Why I Published Open Access

FULcrum Article by Andrea Wright, Science & Outreach Librarian

After completing a speaker series on scholarly communication issues here at Furman, I knew that I wanted to share the process with other librarians. A major shift in scholarly communication over the past 15 years has been the Open Access (OA) movement. OA advocates call for removing price and license barriers to literature. So when it came time to write about my experience with a program to increase awareness of issues like OA, it only made sense to publish my work in a OA title.

There are actually several excellent reasons to publish any work OA. The graphic below illustrates many benefits to OA publishing. It’s logical that removing barriers would increase exposure to your work. Because your work is available to anyone at no charge, it can be read by researchers in developing countries and faculty at institutions with limited library resources and researchers that are not affiliated with a large company or university and even the general public. Wider exposure means the possibility for more application of your findings. And research continues to bear out that this increased exposure also correlates to increased citations (see http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html for details). This mix of professional benefits for the author and larger benefits to research and society make OA publishing a strong choice.

Discovering an OA journal that would fit my article was a similar process to comparing traditional toll-journals. As with any publication, I wanted to ensure that the scope and audience for the journal would fit my content. Having exhausted my grant money with the program, I also wanted to find an OA journal that did not have an article-processing charge. The Directory of Open Access Journals (www.doaj.org) allows you to browse OA journals by subject, language, publication charges, and even licensing options. I also wanted to publish in a peer-review journal that was indexed in places where my audience would look. UlrichsWeb includes OA titles along with toll-journals, so I was able to further refine my journal search.

In the end, I decided to submit to the Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. This peer-review journal is published by Pacific University Library. It has a strong editorial board of librarians in the scholarly communication field, matched the nature of my article, allowed me to license my article with a creative commons license, and did not charge an APC. It even offered the additional benefits of being indexed directly by Google Scholar and providing monthly readership and download reports. If you were to investigate OA journals in your own discipline, you would probably find a mix of journals supported by scholarly associations, non-profit groups, and traditional publishers that could offer your work similar benefits.

Even if you decide that an OA journal is not the best venue for your work, you can still reap many of the benefits of OA through green archiving. The vast majority of publishers allow authors to deposit some form of their manuscript into a personal website or institutional repository. Just this month, the Libraries launched the Furman University Scholar Exchange (FUSE), our own institutional repository. Based on the copyright and self-archiving policies of your publisher, you can most likely post a specific version of your manuscript to FUSE. This will enable anyone to access a version of your article, even if they cannot afford to purchase the final version of record from your publisher. SHERPA/RoMEO (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/) provides a large database of publisher policies to help you determine what rights you have for green archiving in FUSE. You can even use it to determine past work that you can post to FUSE. In addition to the OA benefits from the graphic, FUSE will also provide you with readership and download statistics for your work to help track the impact of your research.

Benefits of open access

History Is Just a Mouse Click Away!

Over the past 2 months, The Digital Collections Center launched two new online collections containing historical materials from the Furman University Special Collections and Archives. Now you can access these important primary source materials with just a simple click of a mouse.


Civil War Correspondence

View Online Collection

This collection contains over 100 letters written during the American Civil War. The contents include 16 items from Samuel McBride Pringle who was born December 7, 1839 and enrolled at Furman University in 1859. He left Furman in the spring of 1861 to join the Confederate Army. Pringle was wounded at the Battle of Antietam and never recovered. He died on September 24, 1862. The letters he wrote to his family during the Civil War have been digitized from the Samuel McBride Pringle Collection in the Furman Special Collections and Archives.

There are also 91 letters between Charles M. Furman and his sweetheart and later wife Frances Garden. Charles Manning Furman (1840-1934) was the son of James C. Furman, the University’s first president. Charles attended Furman from 1853-1859 and enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861. During his time in the Civil War, he frequently wrote to his future wife, Frances Emma Garden (1842-1883). Their lively and endearing correspondence has been digitized from the Charles Manning & Frances Garden Furman Civil War Correspondence in the Furman Special Collections and Archives.

Altogether, these letters offer a glimpse into the War, the home front, and the personal lives of the authors.


Richard Furman and James C. Furman Collection

View Online Collection

This collection contains 163 letters and 9 sermons from Richard Furman (1755-1825), a clergyman considered the most important Baptist leader before the Civil War. Furman was pastor of the First Baptist Church in Charleston, S.C., and became the first president of the Triennial Convention, the first national body of Baptists in America. Under Furman’s urging, education was endorsed as a formal element of the denomination’s program, eventually resulting in the founding of Columbian College (modern-day George Washington University) in 1821. Furman was also elected the first president of the South Carolina Baptist Convention in 1821. Furman University, the South’s first Baptist college, was posthumously named in his honor. The principal correspondents included in this digital collection are Oliver Hart, Charles Screven, Edmund Botsford, and Joseph B. Cook.

The collection also contains 602 letters and 9 sermons from James Clement Furman (1809-1891). A son of Richard Furman, James C. Furman first joined the Furman faculty in 1845 and later became its first president in 1859, serving until 1879.  Furman was instrumental in the institution’s move to Greenville in 1851. A leading voice among secessionists, Furman was a signer of the Ordinance of Secession in 1860. The university closed during the Civil War but reopened due to the perseverance of its president who would not abandon it. The letters in this digital collection reflect many of Furman University’s early struggles and triumphs.



Apartheid Archival Database

The Furman University Libraries are hosting a trial for Adam Matthew’s Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1966.  This trial is available through Wednesday, November 12th and can be accessed from our Trials LibGuide.

Adam Matthew: Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1966

Addressing the period 1948-1966, this archival database provides comprehensive coverage of issues related to apartheid in South Africa including:

  • The National Party’s policy of racial segregation
  • Analysis and reactions to Apartheid & events in South Africa
  • Nelson Mandela – Arrests and Trials
  • Sharpeville Massacre
  • Political prisoners and refugees
  • Treason and Rivonia trials
  • Detailed coverage of ANC leaders & imprisonment
  • South Africa’s withdrawal from the Commonwealth
These formerly restricted documents sourced from The National Archives UK provide detail with in-depth analysis of events, international reaction and policy dilemmas, accompanied by numerous first-hand accounts and reports. Please note that the PDF download options are not available during trials.  This trial will be available through November 12, 2014.  This resource is being released in three sections over the next six months: 1948-1966 (available now), 1967-1975 (coming December 2014), 1976-1980 (coming March 2015).

We would like your feedback about our trials.  After you have tried an electronic resource, please come back and let us know what you think.  Our feedback form is simple, and will take you less than 5 minutes to complete.  If you have any questions please get in touch with Outreach Services.

BrowZine for Android smartphones is here!

Browzine for Android
BrowZine for Android smartphones is here!

The app that allows you to browse thousands of journals online can now be accessed on more than just iOS devices and Android tablets.  It is available for download in the Google Play store.

Watch a video explaining BrowZine and how it works with our resources, and please contact your librarian if you need more information.

Fall Break Hours

The library will be operating under an altered schedule during Fall Break.

October 10
8:00am – 5:00pm
October 11
1:00pm – 5:00pm
October 12
1:00pm – 5:00pm
October 13
9:00am – 5:00pm
October 14
9:00am – 1:00am

Midterm Exam Hours

To help you get through Midterms, the James B. Duke Library has extended its hours.

October 8
8:00am – 2:00am
October 9
8:00am – 2:00am
October 10
8:00am – 5:00pm

Nominate a Recording

The Preservation Act of 2000 requires the Librarian of Congress to select 25 recordings annually that are “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” and are at least 10 years old.  The selections for the 2013 National Recording Registry brings the total number of recordings on the registry to 400, a small part of the Library’s vast recorded sound collection of more than 3.5 million items.

Nominations are gathered through online submissions from the public and from the National Recording Preservation Board, which is comprised of leaders in the fields of music, recorded sound and preservation.

You, too, can nominate up to 50 recordings annually.  Here’s how:

  • Include as much information as possible about the nominated recording(s).  All nominations should include the recording artist(s), title, and record label name/number for published recordings or a brief but specific description for unpublished and broadcast recordings.
  • Include a brief justification for each nomination.
  • Submit your nomination by mail, fax, or email (see below).


Nominations are accepted continuously as the deadline varies each year.  Those received too late for the current year’s registry will be rolled over to the next year.  Due to the large number of submissions, nominations will not be acknowledged.

For more information:

National Recording Preservation Board
c/o Motion Picture, Broadcasting & Recorded Sound Division
Library of Congress
101 Independence Avenue SE
Washington DC 20540-4698
Email: recregistry@loc.gov
Fax: (202) 707-8464

Recordings selected so far by the Librarian of Congress for the Registry run the gamut and include:

Tiger Rag – Original Dixieland Jazz Band. (1918)  The Original Dixieland Jazz Band was the first jazz band to make a commercial recording. This all-white New Orleans-style group from Chicago featured cornetist Nick LaRocca. While not the best ensemble of its day, the first recordings of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band initiated a craze for a new art form–jazz. Selected for the 2002 registry.

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot – Fisk University Jubilee Quartet. (1909)  The Fisk Jubilee Singers helped establish the black spiritual in the history of American music. They were also the first to introduce these songs to white audiences through concert tours and recordings. “Swing Low” is their first commercial recording. Selected for the 2002 registry.

Sounds of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker. (1935)  In 1935, on their expedition to document rare North American birds, Arthur Allen and Peter Paul Kellogg of Cornell University recorded a pair of ivory-billed woodpeckers in an old-growth Louisiana swamp forest known as the Singer Tract. These recordings of the birds’ calls and foraging taps are presently the last confirmed aural evidence of what was once the largest woodpecker species in the United States. The last universally accepted sighting of an ivory-bill occurred in 1944. However, since that time, many scientists believe there have been credible sightings of the species, suggesting the bird might not be extinct. These 1935 recordings have been vital to recent searches and have been used to train searchers on what to listen for. They have also been used to develop pattern-recognition software, enlisting computers to analyze new field recordings identifying similar sounds. Selected for the 2008 registry.

Ronald Reagan Radio Broadcasts. (1976-1979)  This collection of over 1,000 radio broadcast recordings, the majority penned by Ronald Reagan himself, documents the development of his political vision in the years immediately preceding his election to the White House. In the broadcasts, Reagan sounded what would become the familiar themes of his presidency: reduction of government spending, tax cuts, supply-side economics and anti-communism. These radio “chats” did not focus on specific policy prescriptions as much as they outlined a conservative governing philosophy. Also showcased is Reagan’s conversational, folksy rhetorical style, which adds immeasurably to his public appeal. Selected for the 2007 registry.

“A Charlie Brown Christmas” (album). Vince Guaraldi Trio. (1965)  “A Charlie Brown Christmas” introduced jazz to millions of listeners.  The television soundtrack album includes expanded themes from the animated “Peanuts” special of the same name as well as jazz versions of both traditional and popular Christmas music, performed primarily by the Vince Guaraldi Trio.  The original music is credited to pianist Guaraldi and television producer Lee Mendelson.  Best remembered is the “Linus and Lucy” theme, originally composed by Guaraldi for an earlier “Peanuts” project, which remains beloved by fans of the popular television specials, those devoted to the daily newspaper comic strip, and music lovers alike. Selected for the 2011 registry.

“Dear Mama.”  Tupac Shakur. (1995)  In this moving and eloquent homage to both his own mother and all mothers struggling to maintain a family in the face of addiction, poverty, and societal indifference, Tupac Shakur unflinchingly forgives his mother who, despite a cocaine habit, “never kept a secret, always stayed real.” The song displays further evidence of hip hop as a musically sophisticated and varied genre which can artfully encompass a wide variety of themes and musical influences. Selected for the 2009 registry.

“Coat of Many Colors.” Dolly Parton.  (1971)  Dolly Parton’s autobiographical song, “Coat of Many Colors,” affectionately recounts an impoverished childhood in the hills of Tennessee that was made rich by the love of her family. The song was instrumental in establishing Parton’s credibility as a songwriter.  Her voice uplifts the song with emotion and tender remembrances of her close-knit musical family.  Parton has called “Coat of Many Colors” the favorite of her compositions because of the attitude and philosophy it reflects.  Parton’s prolific songwriting career has embraced many different musical styles, including pop, jazz, and bluegrass, as well as country.  Dolly Parton was voted the Country Music Association’s Female Vocalist of the year for 1975 and 1976 and inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1999. Selected for the 2011 registry.

“Theme from ‘Shaft’” (album).  Isaac Hayes.  (1971)  After several years behind the scenes as a writer and producer at Stax Records in Memphis, Isaac Hayes broke through as a solo artist with a series of albums that featured his lengthy, multi-layered compositions and distinctive speaking and singing styles.  In 1971, after the Hollywood recording sessions for his soundtrack to “Shaft,” a groundbreaking film about an African-American private detective caught between the mob and the police, Hayes returned to Memphis and created this double album.  Hayes enhanced and expanded his earlier work as he saw fit, and created a listening experience as innovative and exciting as the film itself, leading off with an unforgettable opening theme highlighted by Charles Pitts’s wah-wah guitar and Hayes’s sexy banter with a female chorus. Selected for the 2013 registry.

View the full Registry.  

Note: The Full National Recording Registry is a national list and many of the items listed are housed in collections across the country. The Library of Congress does not currently hold copies of all the recordings listed.



Free Map Give-Away

Hispanic Americans in Congress

In honor of Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15 – October 15) a display in the Government Documents Collection highlights a book from the House of Representatives.  Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822-2012 profiles Hispanic members of Congress, incorporating their government service with the history of United States expansion.

Since 1899 at least one Hispanic American has served in each Congress.  For much of the 19th century, Hispanic Americans served as Territorial Delegates whose native lands had been acquired by war or diplomacy from Spain or Mexico as a result of U.S. continental expansion.  Territorial delegates had limited power and served more as lobbyists for their interests like infrastructure projects for roads and railways than as legislators.  Following the Spanish-American War of 1898, the inclusion of Puerto Rico as a territory marked another increase in representation of Hispanic Americans in government.  Since the first Territorial Delegate from Florida joined Congress in 1822, 91 Hispanic Americans have served in Congress and more than half, or 54, served after 1977.

The publication dedicates more pages to the past giving a detailed history of United States expansion and the inclusion of Hispanic Americans in Congress as Texas, New Mexico, California, Florida, Puerto Rico and other territories gained representation in government.  Each member’s profile includes a picture, full-page pictures for former members, and standard biographical information with a greater focus on what they did while in Congress – the committees they served on, legislation they fought for and select anecdotes.  The early history is more interesting as representatives overcame language barriers and fought for statehood for their territories.  The appendices at the end of the book are a great resource organizing members by every imaginable category like the number of Hispanic Americans in Congress from each state, the committees they served on, the committees they chaired, the representatives in each Congress, and so on.